Disrupted fat breakdown in the brain makes mice dumb

A study led by the University of Bonn opens a new perspective with regard to the development of dementia. The scientists blocked the breakdown of a certain fat molecule in the mouse brain. As a result the animals exhibited learning and memory problems. Also the quantity of Alzheimer-specific proteins in their brains increased significantly. The researchers now have a clue as to why the mice become dumb. The results are published in the scientific journal Autophagy.

Apart from water, our brain is rich in lipids -- in plain language: fats. The lipids act, for instance, as an insulating layer around the nerve fibers and thus prevent short circuits. However, they are also a main component in the delicate membranes that surround the brain cells.

Sphingolipids, a special lipid type are highly enriched in the brain. One of their degradation products, S1P, may play a central role in the development of Alzheimer's and other forms of dementia. "We raised mice that are no longer able to break down S1P in large parts of their brain," explains Dr. Gerhild van Echten-Deckert. "The animals then displayed severely reduced learning and memory performance."

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